Agricultural Mechanization in the hilly and mountainous areas of South China has changed from land adaptation to land adaptation.
with the roar of two 80 HP 688 kubotian rapeseed harvesters, more than half of the 60 mu of rapeseed has been harvested in a short time. "Before the land was renovated, the size of the land was only oneortwo mu, and the size of the small land was only twoorthree minutes. The typical 'palm field and chicken nest land' had a height difference of nearly one meter. Don't even think about such land under the machine." On the afternoon of May 10, in dongzikou village, Jinlong Town, Yongchuan District, Chongqing, Ligang, chairman of Taoyi Agricultural Machinery Co., Ltd., pointed to two harvesters that were trying to harvest winter rapeseed while the rain stopped
along the way, not only in Yongchuan, but also in Dazu District, Rongchang District, Tongnan District, Dianjiang County and Fengdu County, there are hundreds of Mu less suitable for mechanized transformation and thousands more. High-power tractors, large combine harvesters and large seed fertilizer co seeders have begun to replace microcomputers in the fields. Such scenes are common and have become a spark
qindachun, deputy director of Chongqing Municipal Committee of agriculture and director of Chongqing Municipal Agricultural machinery office, told: "since 2015, Chongqing has promoted agricultural modernization by focusing on the transformation of land suitable for mechanization. The city has renovated more than 50000 mu of land, and preliminarily explored a path for the development of Agricultural Mechanization in Hilly and mountainous areas in the south."
the mode of small plots and small agricultural machinery is difficult to sustain. Where is the road of Agricultural Mechanization in southern hilly and mountainous areas
talking about the characteristics of Chongqing, Qin Dachun introduced that as the youngest municipality directly under the central government in China, Chongqing integrates large cities, large rural areas, large mountain areas, large reservoir areas, ethnic areas and areas with fragile ecological environment. Among the more than 30 million mu of cultivated land in the city, hills and mountains account for 98%, of which 47.1% are slope cultivated land with an angle of more than 15 °, more than 80% are single cultivated land with an area of less than 1 mu, and the per capita cultivated land area is only 1.12 Mu. The cultivated land of each farmer scattered in more than 3 places accounts for 60%, and the per household cultivated land scale is less than 5 mu. "Bazhang field and chicken nest land" are the most true portrayals of agricultural natural conditions, known as "Six Mountains, three hills and one land"
Chongqing can be said to have all the typical characteristics of Hilly and mountainous areas in southern China
in the new century, especially since 2004, driven by a series of favorable national policies on agriculture, rural areas and farmers, Chongqing has entered the fast train of agricultural mechanization development, which can be widely used in quality inspection departments, construction units, steel hinge lines and steel bar production enterprises. By the end of 2015, the comprehensive mechanization level of cultivation and harvest of major crops in the city had reached more than 42%, which has crossed the primary stage of agricultural mechanization development
how to view the achievements, Chongqing Agricultural Machinery people think that they have made great achievements compared with themselves vertically. However, if compared with the national level, in 2015, the comprehensive mechanization rate of crop cultivation and harvest in China exceeded 63%, and Chongqing lagged behind by more than 20 percentage points; In terms of the horsepower of agricultural machinery, the plain area has entered an era dominated by large and medium-sized agricultural machinery. Among the nearly 700000 agricultural machinery in Chongqing, 660000 are micro tillage machines, accounting for more than 90% of the total number of agricultural machinery. The gap is even greater
as mentioned above, the elongation of polymer materials is far better than that of metal, fiber, wood, plate and other materials. Ligang loves and hates it. "Even with a strong labor force, the micro cultivator can only plough and prepare about 5 mu of land in a day. Due to too much vibration, it often has back pain after working for a day. The utilization rate is still low, and it can only work for 20 or 30 days a year. A 95 HP tractor can plough mu of land for 10 hours a day, with an average of more than 150 days a year. In addition, a micro cultivator costs 3000 or 4000 yuan, which can be used for at most twoorthree years." Ligang said. Qinmingshan, deputy director of Chongqing agricultural machinery office, described the role of micro tillers as "emancipating cattle and killing people."
are Chongqing farmers unwilling to use medium and large agricultural machinery? A survey conducted by Chongqing agricultural machinery office shows that the main reasons why many farmers do not use agricultural machinery or medium and large agricultural machinery are that the plot is too small and the terrain is not suitable for mechanical operation
rely on a lot of labor to intensively cultivate on a small plot to check whether the CPU frequency (11.0592Mhz) and the comparison voltage are stable or drift? Can traditional agriculture, small plots and agricultural mechanization of small agricultural machinery with faulty welding continue
"now the labor cost is too high. The labor cost is 80 yuan a day. They are all old people, so they often can't get them." Yangkongwen, a 62 year old consultant of Hongda Rice Industry Co., Ltd., said at the edge of the renovated paddy field in Renhe Village, Pushun Town, Dianjiang County
when it comes to the cost of labor, zhouyuangui, the chairman of Yongchuan Yuangui Agricultural Machinery Co., Ltd., is the most impressed. The 620 mu of land he transferred last year, and the past owner planted vegetables for four years, but he had to give up because of too much labor
during the interview, I saw the abandoned land due to no cultivation from time to time. Yangpeicheng, a researcher from the agricultural machinery comprehensive Department of Chongqing Municipal Committee of agriculture, told us that due to the small size of the field, farming is inconvenient. It is conservatively estimated that about 30% of the abandoned land in the city
"in the past, we used to focus on small and medium-sized agricultural machinery. Now, this road can no longer go on. On the one hand, it is saturated and cannot liberate the labor force. On the other hand, it has no effect, no benefit and can not go on." Qinmingshan said
small machines are saturated, so it is difficult to use small plots and small units. Where is the direction of Agricultural Mechanization in hilly areas? Where is the main battlefield for developing agricultural mechanization in Hilly and mountainous areas? Who is the main force? What is the main equipment? Chongqing Agricultural Machinery people once felt confused
carry out high-standard mechanized farmland renovation, and get through the "last mile" of machinery entering the field. After repeated investigation, they found that many of the nearly 30 countries and regions currently at the forefront of world agriculture are hilly or mountainous countries and regions. Japan, South Korea and Taiwan are similar to Chongqing hilly area in terms of agricultural land use conditions, but their agricultural mechanization level is in the forefront of the world - more than 90%. One of the common experiences of these countries and regions in quickly realizing the industrialization of agricultural machinery in the "2016 Changzhou new materials industry and Finance Summit Forum" held recently is to carry out large-scale land remediation for the purpose of improving the efficiency of mechanical operation
it seems that without the appropriate scale of land, there would be no mechanization of agriculture and no modernization of agriculture
therefore, Chongqing Agricultural Machinery Department has found the "pain point" that restricts the development of Agricultural Mechanization in this region: it is not a problem of machines or the integration of machinery and technology, but the restriction of natural conditions (land). There are many hilly and mountainous areas with small and scattered plots, and the operation, transfer and transportation of agricultural machinery are limited, so it is difficult to give full play to the role and benefits of medium and large agricultural machinery. In order to improve the development level, quality and benefits of agricultural mechanization, the premise is to carry out high standard and mechanized farmland renovation, and get through the "last kilometer" of machinery into the field
the crux has been found. Where and how to develop the main battlefield will be solved naturally
Qin Dachun made an account: "Among the more than 30million mu of arable land in the city, 5million mu of advantageous areas will be the focus in the near future, which can be preliminarily renovated; in the medium term, 5million mu of moderately renovated arable land can also be suitable for the machine; in the long term, 5million-10million mu of arable land that can still be suitable for the machine can be severely renovated according to the level of economic and social development and the needs of food security and supply, so as to ensure the sustainable development of agriculture in the city.
these areas should be the main battlefield of Agricultural Mechanization in the future. Relying on this main battlefield, Agricultural Mechanization Organization, medium and large agricultural machinery will have a place to play. "
if a worker wants to be good at something, he must first sharpen his tools
in order to ensure the stability and long-term development of mechanized farmland regulation, in 2014, after the successful regulation test of the Institute of agricultural machinery of Chongqing Academy of Agricultural Sciences, in 2015, the Municipal Committee of agriculture conducted sample expansion tests in Zhongxian County, Yongchuan District and Banan District. "Through experiments and demonstrations, four technical models for the consolidation and renovation of land suitable for mechanization were finally extracted, and the local standard technical specification for the consolidation and renovation of land suitable for mechanization in Hilly and mountainous areas of Chongqing was issued." Aofangyuan, deputy director of Chongqing Agricultural Mechanization Technology Expert Committee, introduced. Land (field) block connectivity mode: in the divided land (field) block, the land (field) block connectivity is realized through ladder building, ditch filling, ridge elimination and other measures. In the gentle slope transformation mode, promote the gentle slope transformation of dry lands with a slope below 10 ° according to local conditions, so that the transverse slope is not greater than 3 °. In the horizontal strip transformation mode, for scattered plots with an elevation difference of less than 60 cm, the transformation growth degree shall not be less than 50 meters, the length shall be as long as possible, and a unit shall not be less than 5 mu. The ladder type transformation mode includes horizontal ladder and inclined line ladder. The original terraces or mountains with large slope, different shapes and scattered ground (field) blocks are transformed into straight horizontal ladder or "Z" shaped inclined line ladder. Each ladder is connected to facilitate the continuous operation and transfer of large and medium-sized agricultural machines and tools. In order to accelerate the formation of production capacity, it is also required to rapidly ripen and fertilize the soil of the land suitable for mechanization, focusing on the promotion of organic fertilizer
"to carry out opportunistic remediation, we implemented the principle of government guidance, owner leadership and financial reward and subsidy from the beginning. We not only give full play to the leveraging and guiding role of financial funds, but also give full play to the power of the market, so as to make the current period affordable and long-term sustainable." Qinmingshan said. It is understood that last year, the government invested 33million yuan in financial funds, with an average subsidy of yuan per mu, but the social investment driven by it reached more than 100million yuan
zhanghuajing, the person in charge of Fengdu County Dadi Pastoral Agricultural Development Co., Ltd., told: "we have transformed more than 3600 mu of land, with an investment of more than 30million yuan. However, only 750 mu of land were subsidized with 1.5 million yuan. Now, the government does not subsidize, but we have to do it."
"during the pilot test, we always timely invite comrades from relevant municipal departments to the site for observation and guidance to win their support." Qindachun told me. Now, the number of pilot districts and counties has expanded from 10 in 2015 to 23 in 2016, and has initially formed a pattern in which land, water conservancy, agricultural comprehensive development and other departments go in the same direction
from micro tiller to medium and large-scale agricultural machinery, it has promoted the optimal allocation of resource elements.
"it seems simple to change from machine to land to machine. In fact, it is an adjustment to the development path of traditional agricultural mechanization in southern hilly and mountainous areas. More importantly, it has released productivity and promoted the optimal allocation of resource elements." Qin Dachun said
cost saving and efficiency increasing were frequently mentioned by the owners who carried out the mechanization transformation in the interview
"when cutting rape last year, because the field was too small, fourorfive people worked around it, and the operation was still slow. Often, the rape seeds over there were fried before the harvest was finished. It took more than 10 days to harvest the 500 mu rape. After the renovation, the large area was more than 40 mu, and the smallest field was more than 5 mu. The three machines finished the harvest in three days at most, which also bought time for the sowing of subsequent rice." Yujianhong, the general manager of Datang Fengyu agricultural company in Sanqu Town, Dazu District, talked about the changes before and after the appropriate mechanization transformation
zhouyuangui told: "after land consolidation, each piece of land will be more than 5 mu. The whole process of tillage, sowing, fertilization, pest control and harvesting can be mechanized, which greatly improves the efficiency. According to the average saving of 5 workers per mu of land in a season, and 80 yuan per day per worker, the labor cost per mu of land can be reduced by 400 yuan."
it increases the land area, makes full use of the valuable land resources in Hilly and mountainous areas, and is conducive to ensuring national food security
Chongqing Municipal Committee of agriculture provided such a set of data. According to the preliminary calculation, after the land renovation, due to the elimination of ridges and gutters, the cultivated land area generally increased by 3%-5%